Ronaldo's strike, which was applauded on the night by his opposing - and it turned out future - fans, topped the poll with nearly 200,000 of the total 346,915 votes.
He succeeds his new Juve colleague Mario Mandzukic, who won last year for his goal against Real Madrid in the UEFA Champions League final, while Lionel Messi took the award in both 2014/15 and 2015/16.
The five-time Ballon d'Or winner took to Instagram after hearing about the award. He wrote: 'Thanks to everyone who voted for me.
'Will never forget that moment, especially the reaction of the fans in the stadium."
The runner-up was Dimitri Payet's goal in Marseille's 5-2 UEFA Europa League defeat of RB Leipzig, while third place went to Eva Navarro's goal for Spain in their Women's U17 Euro final victory against Germany in Lithuania in May.
The 11 nominees were selected by UEFA's technical observers, with one for each of the main UEFA competitions over the past 12 months. Only goals registered in UEFA club or international fixtures were eligible for consideration.
Source: Sky sports